Dr. Carol Dweck - Studies found a distinction between
Entity and Incremental Theories of Intelligence.
Fixed Mindset - "I am smart at
this." Attribute their success to ingrained ability,
fixed entity. Believe that if you have ability,
everything should come naturally. When challenged, they
are more prone to quit; brittle in self-concept; become
dispirited by inability to solve hard problems because
setbacks call their intelligence into question.
Growth Mindset - "I got it because
I worked at it." Attribute their success to hard
work. Believe that difficult work can be grasped step
by step, incrementally. The novice can become
the master. When challenged, more likely to rise to the
level of the game.
Examples of the type of praise that creates a "growth
Praise the process in which the student engaged.
Praise effort, but not just any effort. Praise persistence
Praise for choosing difficult tasks.
Praise for changing strategies when something is not working.
For more on Carol Dweck's
research, see Stanford
University - Carol S. Dweck.