Scale Score Ranges and Academic Achievement Descriptors
Student performance on WESTEST 2 is based on scale scores. The student’s performance level (Distinguished, Above Mastery, Mastery, Partial Mastery and Novice) is determined by examining where their scale score falls on the approved scale score ranges.
Background:
In February 2009, members of the West Virginia Department of Education (WVDE) and CTB/McGrawHill (CTB) applied the WESTEST 2 field test data to the operational forms to conduct a Bookmark Standard Setting Procedure to set standards for Grades 311 in the content areas of Mathematics, Reading/Language Arts, Science and Social Studies.
Participants from across the state, comprised of classroom teachers, administrators, decisionmakers, parents and community members, worked individually and in concert to recommend cut scores associated with the five performance levels: Novice, Partial Mastery, Mastery, and Above Mastery, Above Mastery, and Distinguished. These cuts scores were used to determine student performance in the Spring of 2009.
In 2010, WVDE worked with national TAC experts, the State Assessment Advisory Committee, and CTB to identify statistically sound and defensible cut scores for school status and growth determination that allow transition to national and international rigor of performance. The new performance cut scores, based on the first operational test data and West Virginia's performance on the State NAEP and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) were established and presented for Board approval.
Impact:
The newly created cuts will be used to 1) determine student performance in each of the performance levels in 2010 and 2) transition WVDE to internationally rigorous cut scores. The recommended cut scores and descriptors for WESTEST 2 are shown in the following Tables
Scale Score Ranges
Mathematics

Novice 
Partial Mastery 
Mastery 
Above Mastery 
Distinguished 
Grade 3 
546 and Below 
547580 
581600 
601622 
623 and Above 
Grade 4 
555 and Below 
556591 
592621 
622645 
646 and Above 
Grade 5 
576 and Below 
577610 
611636 
637666 
667 and Above 
Grade 6 
596 and Below 
597625 
626651 
652681 
682 and Above 
Grade 7 
617 and Below 
618640 
641668 
669697 
698 and Above 
Grade 8 
621 and Below 
622650 
651672 
673698 
699 and Above 
Grade 9 
641 and Below 
642667 
668685 
686706 
707 and Above 
Grade 10 
644 and Below 
645669 
670689 
690713 
714 and Above 
Grade 11 
660 and Below 
661679 
680701 
702722 
723 and Above 
Reading/Language Arts

Novice 
Partial Mastery 
Mastery 
Above Mastery 
Distinguished 
Grade 3 
417 and Below 
418435 
436460 
461486 
487 and Above 
Grade 4 
426 and Below 
427451 
452474 
475501 
502 and Above 
Grade 5 
434 and Below 
435459 
460484 
485511 
512 and Above 
Grade 6 
441 and Below 
442469 
470495 
496521 
522 and Above 
Grade 7 
446 and Below 
447478 
479504 
505528 
529 and Above 
Grade 8 
447 and Below 
448480 
481507 
508538 
539 and Above 
Grade 9 
448 and Below 
449483 
484516 
517549 
550 and Above 
Grade 10 
452 and Below 
453491 
492526 
527559 
560 and Above 
Grade 11 
453 and Below 
454500 
501527 
528562 
563 and Above 
Science

Novice 
Partial Mastery 
Mastery 
Above Mastery 
Distinguished 
Grade 3 
507 and Below 
508539 
540567 
568590 
591 and Above 
Grade 4 
521 and Below 
522553 
554568 
569591 
592 and Above 
Grade 5 
543 and Below 
544565 
566586 
587608 
609 and Above 
Grade 6 
558 and Below 
559577 
578598 
599623 
624 and Above 
Grade 7 
566 and Below 
567580 
581601 
602626 
627 and Above 
Grade 8 
584 and Below 
585595 
596619 
620647 
648 and Above 
Grade 9 
595 and Below 
596623 
624638 
639661 
662 and Above 
Grade 10 
622 and Below 
623651 
652670 
671697 
698 and Above 
Grade 11 
628 and Below 
629662 
663683 
684705 
706 and Above 
Social Studies

Novice 
Partial Mastery 
Mastery 
Above Mastery 
Distinguished 
Grade 3 
376 and Below 
377406 
407426 
427448 
449 and Above 
Grade 4 
388 and Below 
389413 
414428 
429452 
453 and Above 
Grade 5 
386 and Below 
387414 
415427 
428451 
452 and Above 
Grade 6 
389 and Below 
390416 
417431 
432451 
452 and Above 
Grade 7 
384 and Below 
385411 
412427 
428452 
453 and Above 
Grade 8 
391 and Below 
392417 
418432 
433453 
454 and Above 
Grade 9 
386 and Below 
387414 
415431 
432453 
454 and Above 
Grade 10 
382 and Below 
383410 
411427 
428448 
449 and Above 
Grade 11 
396 and Below 
397421 
422434 
435454 
455 and Above 
Academic Achievement Descriptors with Scale Score Ranges
Mathematics

Novice 
Partial Mastery 
Mastery 
Above Mastery 
Distinguished 

Students can put whole numbers in order; find a missing number between any two given numbers; represent the fractional part of a whole given a pictorial representation; subtract two digit numbers with renaming; recall basic math facts; extend a pattern; recognize a transformation of a given figure; and count money. 
Students, in addition to novice level skills, can compare whole numbers; use estimation to find sums and differences; subtract 3 digit numbers; demonstrate and model division; identify solid figure from plane drawing; determine number of faces of a solid figure; estimate perimeter and area of a shape using a grid; and use data to create a graph. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can compare fractions; use multiplication properties; find rule from input/output table; identify solid figures; compare lines of symmetry; determine place value; find area or perimeter from drawing; compute elapsed time; solve problems using more than one operation; determine likeliness of an event; identify point on a grid; and interpret data from graph. 
Students, in addition to mastery level skills, can use pictorial representations to write equivalent fractions; transform, combine or decompose shapes to identify new shapes; use elapsed time to find starting or ending time; determine total outcomes from a probability situation; explain operations of multiplication/division using properties; and analyze data on a graph to make comparisons. 
Students, in addition to mastery and above mastery skills, can write equivalent numerical expressions and demonstrate understanding of proper and improper fractions using models. 

546 and Below 
547580 
581600 
601622 
623 and Above 

Students can compare whole numbers using place value; determine order and find placement between given numbers; read a number line; multiply by a one digit number; count money and determine change; add or subtract decimals; and determine questions to use to gather appropriate data. 
Students, in addition to the novice skills, can estimate sums; multiply by a two digit number; determine expression from verbal problem; use order of operations to solve problems; identify the attributes of plane figures; measure lengths using customary or metric units; interpret data from a circle graph; and determine elapsed time. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can determine a correct strategy to use to solve a problem; multiply using standard algorithm; estimate sums and differences; determine the rule using two operations to complete input/output tables; identify the faces of a solid figure; identify, classify, and compare different angles; identify coordinates on a grid; and analyze various data displays. 
Students, in addition to the mastery skills, can use estimation to justify solutions; model fraction and mixed number equivalency; model addition and subtraction of fractions and mixed numbers; create a plane figure with one line of symmetry; write an expression using a variable from a verbal problem; and convert between units of measures involving lengths or weights. 
Students, in addition to the mastery and above mastery skills, can convert and order units of measure; compare and order decimals; interpret elapsed time in a real world problem; perform multiple transformations on a figure; and determine mean, median, and mode from data. 

555 and Below 
556591 
592621 
622645 
646 and Above 

Students can compare whole numbers; estimate fractional parts; compute using basic math facts; find missing elements in a pattern; identify faces of solid figures; identify shapes with more than one line of symmetry; and examine data for mean, median and/or mode. 
Students, in addition to novice skills, can determine divisibility; estimate whole number solutions; find least common multiple; use distributive property; add/subtract decimals; demonstrate fluency in operations with whole numbers; determine a pattern rule; identify prime numbers; compare angles of triangles; calculate elapsed/beginning/ending time; complete a Venn diagram; and interpret a graph to make predictions. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can compare equivalency of fractions, decimals, and percents; solve division problems; extend a pattern; classify triangles based on sides and angles; construct solids and identify attributes; measure and compare lengths up to 1/8 inch; find actual measure using scale factor; convert units of measure; interpret data displays; and calculate the mean. 
Students, in addition to the mastery skills, can estimate solutions using fractions, decimals and percents; identify prime, square and composite numbers; interpret and use data from a table; organize data to complete a graph; and convert units of measure. 
Students, in addition to the mastery and above mastery skills, can determine the strategy needed to solve problems that involve fractions with different denominators. 

576 and Below 
577610 
611636 
637666 
667 and Above 

Students can convert decimal to percent; simplify numerical expression using order of operations; extend a pattern; write and solve onestep equations and verify solution; compare geometric figures; describe relationships formed by parallel and perpendicular lines; determine lines of symmetry; describe transformations; and describe surface area of a solid. 
Students, in addition to novice skills, can use divisibility rules to find prime factorization; apply properties to prove equivalency; evaluate an algebraic expression using order of operations; and solve problems using rate and proportions. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can determine greatest common factor and least common multiple; convert between fractions, decimals, and percents; compute percent of a number; determine the sum of interior angles of a polygon; differentiate between surface area and volume; and determine the number of combinations or permutations using multiple strategies. 
Students, in addition to the mastery level skills, can analyze and solve realworld problems that involve fractions, decimals and percents; use geometric representations to solve problems; approximate pi using actual measurements; and determine theoretical and experimental probability. 
Students, in addition to mastery and above mastery skills, can compare quadrilaterals; determine surface area and volume; find perimeter of simple and compound geometric figures; and determine compound probability. 

596 and Below 
597625 
626651 
652681 
682 and Above 

Students can compare integers; estimate square roots; evaluate expressions with exponents; convert between actual and scale measures; create an input/output table; and read various data displays. 
Students, in addition to novice skills, can find the square and square root of numbers; solve problems involving fractions, decimals and percents; find missing numbers within a pattern; solve problems using a spreadsheet; represent problems algebraically and solve; solve for the missing number in the Pythagorean Theorem; determine combinations; and identify theoretical probability of an event. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can justify the use of properties to simplify expressions; analyze problem to determine strategy to use; analyze and solve proportion problems; determine and use similar polygons; estimate and find actual perimeter and area of geometric figures; convert between units of measure; and analyze various data displays. 
Students, in addition to the mastery skills, can interpret scientific notation; determine geometric and numerical patterns involving squares; compare figures after applying transformations; analyze problems involving proportions between scale and actual drawings; analyze effect of changing the scale factor on area and volume; compare perimeter and area of similar figures; and interpret box and whiskers plot. 
Students, in addition to the mastery and above mastery skills, can use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve application problems; determine the slope of a line on a graph; and estimate the area of a circle. 

617 and Below 
618640 
641668 
669697 
698 and Above 

Students can use proportions to convert between actual and scale measurements; apply rule to find missing numbers in a pattern; and extrapolate information from various data displays. 
Students, in addition to novice skills, can analyze and solve multistep equations and inequalities; use proportions to solve problems and to determine similar figures; use systems of two step linear equations to solve problems; use relationships formed from parallel lines cut by a transversal; determine relationships between attributes of polyhedrons; and subdivide plane figures to solve problems. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can solve problems involving squares; justify solutions of multistep linear equations and inequalities; and determine the dimensions of scale models given the scale factor. 
Students, in addition to the mastery skills, can use the Pythagorean Theorem to find indirect measures when triangles are not obvious; predict the location of a transformed figure; identify rational and irrational numbers; make predictions using probability and random sampling; determine strategy to solve percent problems and justify solution; and solve equations applied to geometric figures. 
Students, in addition to the mastery and above mastery skills, can determine permutations; dilate a figure given the scale factor; find the volume of cylinder and prisms; find area of rectangles, triangles and circles; justify the solution of an inequality using a Cartesian graph; and draw inferences from changes to data affecting central tendency. 

621 and Below 
622650 
651672 
673698 
699 and Above 

Students can solve multistep linear equations; analyze data and make predictions based on patterns; determine the slope of a line; evaluate radical expressions; identify the equation for the line of regression; and compute values of random variables using probability. 
Students, in addition to novice skills, can simplify algebraic expressions; simplify radical expressions; create systems of linear equations; and apply algebraic skills to solve problems involving distance, mixtures or motion. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can graph linear inequalities in one variable; represent data numerically, algebraically and graphically to prove the existence of a pattern to make predictions; use models and graphs to factor; interpret data from probability simulations; create and solve absolute value equations; and solve systems of linear equations given a realworld situation. 
Students, in addition to mastery skills, can formulate algebraic expressions; solve a literal equation for a needed variable; solve practical problems using multiple representations; determine and analyze the correlation coefficient of a line of best fit and/or make predictions; solve quadratic equations using multiple methods; simplify rational expressions and determine where undefined; and apply rules of exponents. 
Students, in addition to mastery and above mastery skills, can examine exponential growth or decay data to determine an equation; determine the equation of a line given point(s) and/or slope; and interpret data from plots and graphs to draw conclusions. 

641 and Below 
642667 
668685 
686706 
707 and Above 

Students can represent geometric figures pictorially using proper identification; and use congruence relationships to solve problems. 
Students, in addition to novice skills, can use the relationships between angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal to find missing measures or determine parallelism; use measures of angles and lengths of sides of a triangle to determine the existence of a triangle or the relationships between sides and angles; and draw conclusions using inductive or deductive reasoning. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can apply trig ratios to similar triangles to find inaccessible heights and distances; use symbolic logic with or without Venn Diagrams to test validity of conclusions; apply the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse to solve problems; solve realworld problems involving medians, altitudes, and perpendicular bisectors; and justify formal and informal proofs. 
Students, in addition to mastery skills, can find measures of angles and arcs formed by segments/lines intersecting a circle; determine unknown measure of interior or exterior angles or lengths of sides of polygons given data; apply perimeter, area, surface area and volume formulas to solving problems; apply analytic geometry to polygons graphed on coordinate plane; and validate conclusions using logical arguments. 
Students, in addition to the mastery and above mastery skills, can compare/contrast properties of convex and concave quadrilaterals; create geometric transformations and determine similarity or congruency; approximate area of irregularly shaped regions; use properties of polygons to tessellate the plane; and compare/contrast Euclidean geometry to other geometries. 

644 and Below 
645669 
670689 
690713 
714 and Above 

Students can derive and use the laws of exponents; add and subtract polynomial expressions; multiply binomial expressions; use properties of polygons to tessellate a plane; and apply deductive reasoning. 
Students, in addition to novice skills, can solve multi step linear equations; use laws of exponents; determine equation of a line; use ratios of similar triangles to find unknown sides or angles; and find midpoint or distance using analytical geometry. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can create and solve systems of equations; simplify radical expression; compare and contrast properties of parallel and nonparallel lines; use congruence relationships of triangles to solve problems; find measures of angles and arcs formed by tangents and chords of a circle; and solve problems using medians, altitudes, and perpendicular and angle bisectors. 
Students, in addition to mastery skills, can analyze patterns; justify informal proofs; apply relationships between angles and sides of triangles; use properties of regular polygons; factor higher order polynomials; simplify expressions with fractional exponents; analyze quadratic equations; recognize function families from words, graphs, tables, and equations; and solve problems using trig ratios and laws. 
Students, in addition to mastery and above mastery skills, can determine when a rational expression is undefined; analyze plots and distributions of data to draw conclusions; compare properties of concave and convex quadrilaterals; find surface area; simplify rational expressions containing radicals; solve quadratic equations and absolute value inequalities expressing solutions using interval notation. 

660 and Below 
661679 
680701 
702722 
723 and Above 
Reading/Language Arts

Novice 
Partial Mastery 
Mastery 
Above Mastery 
Distinguished 

Students can predict sequence of events; recognize fantasy; determine story elements; identify author’s purpose; describe characters; identify synonyms and idioms; use pictures to determine meaning; identify correct capitalization in headings; choose correct punctuation; apply conventions of spelling; and write simple sentences using phonetic spelling. 
Students can identify events, characters, main ideas and supporting details from literary and informational texts; identify purpose for reading; recognize characteristics of genre; summarize literary and informational texts; choose sources for gathering information; identify grammatically correct sentences and correct capitalization; correct spelling errors; and write a paragraph with related sentences. 
Students, in addition to skills below mastery, can use simple dictionary skills; and develop a written product that contains complete sentences in one or more paragraphs using appropriate transitions and word choice. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery, can make connections between self and text; draw conclusions from informational and literary texts; use reading skills to understand electronic resources; and develop a written product with one or more developed paragraphs that contains organized ideas and varied sentences with specific word choice. 
Students, in addition to skills at above mastery, can define characteristics of genre; determine author’s purpose; identify research sources; identify similes and metaphors; and develop a multiparagraph written product that expresses a central idea and contains strong word choice and specific details. 

417 and Below 
418435 
436460 
461486 
487 and Above 

Students can identify story elements; judge reliability of text; distinguish fact from opinion; identify characteristics of genre; select source to gather information; use table of contents to select information; choose synonyms and antonyms; choose correct spelling; identify meaning of contractions; choose correct pronoun usage; and write simple sentences using phonetic spelling. 
Students can use prereading strategies to comprehend text; explain connections between self and events/characters in literary work; capitalize proper nouns correctly; use editing strategies to correct punctuation and grammar errors in sentences; apply proper structure for compound sentences; and write one or two paragraphs with related sentences that express simple ideas and details. 
Students, in addition to the skills below mastery, can identify author’s purpose; select main ideas and supporting details; draw conclusions from details in informational and literary texts; use graphic organizers to interpret information; identify homonyms; identify genre; and develop a written product with one or more related paragraphs containing topic and supporting sentences. 
Students, in addition to the skills at mastery, can compare/contrast self to text; recognize the relationship of ideas; apply etymology to determine meanings of words; use context clues to determine meaning; use editing strategies to combine sentences; select appropriate sources to gather information; and develop a written product with appropriate paragraphing that contains clear organization and complex sentences with precise word choice and sufficient transitions. 
Students, in addition to the skills at above mastery, can explain connections among facts/ideas/events/concepts; extend ideas through inference/summarization; identify correct meaning of multiple meaning words; apply structural analysis to decode words; and develop a multiparagraph written product that has a clear focus and contains vivid word choice and effective details. 

426 and Below 
427451 
452474 
475501 
502 and Above 

Students can locate supporting details; identify conflict; summarize information and make predictions; label figurative language; interpret poetry; identify synonyms; interpret graphic aids; use context clues; identify complete sentences; correct capitalization and punctuation in sentences; correct compound sentences; and write a short paragraph using simple and fragmented sentences and phonetic spelling. 
Students can identify elements of character and plot in literary text; apply comprehension strategies to draw conclusions; identify parts of a book and their purposes; use etymology of words to determine meaning; identify correct punctuation in exclamatory and interrogative sentences; and write one or two paragraphs with a limited focus. 
Students, in addition to the skills below mastery, can compare texts to self and other texts; recognize and evaluate author’s purpose; identify supporting details; determine main ideas in literary and informational texts; identify genre; use denotation to determine meaning; and write a focused composition with one or more developed paragraphs with topic and supporting sentences and a clear purpose. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery, can apply comprehension strategies to judge text and draw conclusions; correct runon sentences; choose appropriate transitional words and phrases; and develop a multiparagraph composition with effective sentences, word choice, and transitions. 
Students, in addition to skills at above mastery, can make inferences by comparing and contrasting two or more texts; and develop a wellorganized and clearly focused multiparagraph composition with sentence variety, vivid word choice and specific details and examples. 

434 and Below 
435459 
460484 
485511 
512 and Above 

Students can interpret character actions; identify literary techniques; use connotation, denotation and prefixes to determine meaning of words; locate information using electronic and nonelectronic sources; identify main topics in an outline; eliminate irrelevant details; correct errors in mechanics; and develop one or more paragraphs using simple and fragmented sentences with phonetic spelling. 
Students can determine mood from supporting details; select defining characteristics of genres; interpret character behaviors; use context clues to determine meaning; identify synonyms and metaphor; evaluate data in electronic and nonelectronic sources; use graphic organizers to organize information; organize subtopics in an outline; and write one or more paragraphs with simplistic word choice and limited details. 
Students, in addition to the skills below mastery, can interpret character motivations; draw conclusions from text; summarize main ideas; determine cause and effect; evaluate connections among facts and ideas; connect literary elements to author’s/reader’s purpose; organize details in an outline; and write a composition of one or more paragraphs with an interconnected beginning, middle, and end and clear transitions. 
Students, in addition to the skills at mastery, can evaluate connections among ideas in literary and informational texts; use prior knowledge to compare genres; evaluate electronic and nonelectronic sources; combine sentences with correct modifier placement; and develop a multiparagraph composition with relevant details, economical word choice, and purposeful transitions. 
Students, in addition to the skills at above mastery, can identify theme from main/supporting details in literary and informational texts; judge text critically; identify information in crediting sources of information; and develop a written composition with multiple welldeveloped paragraphs with specific relevant details and supporting evidence, connotative word choice, and sophisticated transitions. 

441 and Below 
442469 
470495 
496521 
522 and Above 

Students can identify events as part of the plot of a literary text; identify conflict as a literary element; recognize relationship among events; identify changes in character; determine the usefulness of sources; use graphic organizers to identify sequence of events; choose transitional words and cues to signal organization; and write a short composition with simplistic sentence structure and word choice. 
Students can identify resolution as a literary element; relate texttotext connections; make logical predictions; interpret relationship between graphic aids and text; identify variety of sources; use roots to determine meanings of words; summarize explicit information from literary and informational texts; and develop a composition with one or more paragraphs with simple and compound sentences. 
Students, in addition to the skills below mastery, can summarize implied information; analyze relationships among facts/ideas in multiple texts; identify author’s purpose; identify and use a variety of electronic sources for research; choose transitional phrases to connect paragraphs; and develop a multiparagraph composition with somewhat specific word choice, varied sentence structure and appropriate transitions. 
Students, in addition to the skills at mastery, can relate text to theme; interpret rising action as literary element; use genre to draw parallels to world; determine information needed for bibliographic entry; and develop a composition with introductory, supporting and concluding paragraphs with effective supporting details containing economical and specific word choice, strong examples and purposeful transitions. 
Students, in addition to the skills at above mastery, can interpret literary techniques in text; identify climax in literary text; relate connections in text to self; summarize information from sources; and develop a multiparagraph composition with a clear and logical progression of ideas, a specific focus for intended audience, relevant details and connotative word choice. 

446 and Below 
447478 
479504 
505528 
529 and Above 

Students can hypothesize about author’s purpose/theme; identify synonyms; compare/contrast connotation and denotation in passages; analyze how examples enhance writing; predict logical outcomes; use context clues to determine meaning; use editing and revision strategies to combine sentences and change sentence order; and write a short composition with an attempted focus and one or two limited examples. 
Students can identify common themes; recognize relationships among facts/ideas; make connections between text/world; determine point of view; resolve informational conflicts; evaluate Internet sources; use editing strategies to choose topic sentences and vary sentence length; and develop a composition with one or more simplistically developed paragraphs with limited focus, some examples and vague word choice. 
Students, in addition to the skills below mastery, can identify common themes; summarize explicit/implied information from texts; evaluate figurative language; make judgments about text; interpret elements of poetry; recognize a simple thesis statement; and develop a composition with multiple paragraphs containing sufficient supporting details and examples, simple and compound sentences, and precise word choice. 
Students, in addition to the skills at mastery, can make inferences; make connections among facts/ideas/concepts from multiple texts; connect text to self; analyze how analogies enhance writing; analyze setting; and develop a focused composition that contains specific tone and appropriate development for narrative and descriptive writing or includes a simple thesis statement for informative or persuasive writing. 
Students, in addition to the skills at above mastery, can critique the usefulness of form and content; and develop a multiparagraph composition with strong narrative or descriptive development or a strong thesis statement with an informative or persuasive purpose and strong use of examples, relevant details, analogies, illustrations or anecdotes. 

447 and Below 
448480 
481507 
508538 
539 and Above 

Students can formulate supportable conclusions based upon text; identify support for main idea; identify how tone contributes to author’s purpose; identify and evaluate primary sources; and write a short composition with limited focus and repetitive transitions and word choice. 
Students can formulate supportable inferences and opinions based upon text; identify author’s purpose based on use of supporting details; identify literary devices; use context clues to extend vocabulary; identify reliable secondary sources; and develop a written composition with one or more paragraphs containing related ideas, some supporting details, and some sentence variety. 
Students, in addition to the skills below mastery, can analyze author’s use of information; paraphrase direct quotations; determine meaning from word origin; choose transitional sentences; revise sentences to use more precise/concise language; choose revisions to construct complete/varied sentences; and develop a composition with appropriate word choice and transitions among sentences, ideas and paragraphs. 
Students, in addition to the skills at mastery, can interpret literary devices to define author’s purpose; identify relationship of literary elements within genres; recognize genre literary styles; choose appropriate transitional words/phrases to signal organizational patterns; and develop a multiparagraph composition with a clearly identifiable focus, clear progression of ideas, and complete and correct sentences. 
Students, in addition to the skills at above mastery, can analyze purpose/perspective/main and supporting ideas; interpret imagery/symbolism; choose revisions to eliminate organizational errors; and develop a multiparagraph composition with a wellexecuted progression of ideas, sophisticated transitions and varied sentence structure including simple, compound, complex and compoundcomplex sentences. 

448 and Below 
449483 
484516 
517549 
550 and Above 

Students can evaluate author’s use of information to convey purpose; identify literary elements/devices; draw supportable conclusions from multiple texts; extend vocabulary by using context clues; and write a short composition with minimal sentence variation and imprecise word choice. 
Students can identify relationships among themes in multiple texts; create supportable conclusions based on text; interpret how figurative/nonfigurative words support author’s purpose/perspective; recognize symbolism; interpret relationships among literary elements; interpret literary devices; and develop a written product with an introductory and concluding paragraph with some simple and compound sentences. 
Students, in addition to the skills below mastery, can identify relationships of literary elements within genres; make generalizations; interpret how literary devices define author’s/reader’s purpose; summarize direct quotes; revise sentences and incorporate phrases/clauses to improve organization; and write multiparagraph composition with varied sentences, somewhat consistent grammar usage and specific word choice. 
Students, in addition to the skills at mastery, can identify how theme and point of view affect tone; identify differences in literary styles; use etymology to define words; combine sentences to create specific effects and add variety; revise sentences to create more precise/concise language; and develop a multiparagraph composition with logical order, purposeful transitions, and precise and concise language. 
Students, in addition to the skills at above mastery, can explain the effects of characterizations within genres; identify persuasive techniques; analyze effectiveness of organizational patterns; choose effective transitional sentences/ words to signal progression of ideas; and can write a fully developed multiparagraph composition with vivid details and varied sentences containing different phrases and clauses. 

452 and Below 
453491 
492526 
527559 
560 and Above 

Students can evaluate persuasive language; use direct quotes; analyze purpose of texts; analyze author’s choice of detail; choose precise language; determine how language affects meaning of texts; identify author’s intended audience and purpose; summarize ideas and facts; evaluate effectiveness of organizational patterns; and write a short composition with a simple thesis statement and some supporting sentences. 
Students can analyze variety of texts according to content; summarize events and ideas in multiple texts; use knowledge of language to expand vocabulary; use editing strategies to correct errors in usage and mechanics; revise sentences to be more concise; evaluate effectiveness of transitions; and develop a written composition with one or more paragraphs with a progression of ideas and supporting details. 
Students, in addition to the skills below mastery, can analyze texts according to purpose, organization and tone; construct inferences from information in multiple texts; evaluate effectiveness of organizational pattern on author’s purpose; revise sentences for variety; choose relevant sources; and write a multiparagraph composition with a clearly stated topic and sufficient examples and appropriate illustrations. 
Students, in addition to the skills at mastery, can apply sentence links, repeat key words/phrases, and restate main ideas as transitions; recognize the concepts of intellectual property to avoid plagiarism; identify electronic tools for use in editing; use editing strategies to correct errors in mechanics; and write an effectively organized and developed multiparagraph composition with an appropriate style. 
Students, in addition to the skills at above mastery, can construct generalizations through the use of reasoning and evidence; evaluate the effectiveness of rhetorical devices in literary and informational texts; and demonstrate a personal style and voice in a sophisticatedly developed multiparagraph composition with wellcontrolled and varied sentences constructed with various phrases and clauses. 

453 and Below 
454500 
501527 
528562 
563 and Above 
Science

Novice 
Partial Mastery 
Mastery 
Above Mastery 
Distinguished 

Students can use simple scientific instruments, follow safety procedures, associate common organisms adaptations to habitats, use objects to reflect light, compare speeds of objects, relate force to movement, recognize fossils, describe simple erosion, recognize a system is composed of parts and recognize technology impacts daily life. 
Students can use simple scientific tools and technology for everyday events, identify simple plant structure and functions, use forces to move objects, relate change in states of matter to temperature change, describe composition of rocks and layers of earth, use a graph to draw conclusions, interpret a simple data table, identify conservation practices and formulate patterns using objects. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can use math skills in science situations, measure using the metric system, relate an organism and its structure to an environment, associate structure of common organisms to habitats, identify basic rock formation, explain how light is reflected, engage in conservation practices, develop solutions for simple problems and draw conclusions from graphs. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery, can predict adverse affects of relationships between common species, describe the motion of the earth, moon and sun, use fossils to determine age, identify chemical change, understand density and realize change might be cyclical or gradual. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery and above mastery, can use charts to draw conclusions, recognize conservation solutions, determine appropriate metric unit for mass, describe buoyancy, determine the solubility of different solids, explain that a force is needed for work to occur, compare physical characteristics and behaviors of organisms. 

507 and Below 
508539 
540567 
568590 
591 and Above 

Students can recognize mechanism for changing frequency of vibrations, recognize a system is made of parts, identify characteristics of ocean and fresh water, arrange objects in a scheme, recognize characteristics and behaviors which enable common organisms to survive, and identify structure and function of living things. 
Students can use metric units, identify conductors and nonconductors of electricity, use proper scientific techniques in the lab, determine the hypothesis of an experiment, relate sound to vibration, recognize chemical changes, and identify characteristics of the sun. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can apply math skills to science concepts, use magnetic fields, discern between learned and inherited traits, draw conclusions from evidence, engage in conservation practices and use models to represent real things. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery, can interpret food webs, construct simple electric circuits, determine variables in evaporation rates, describe the alignment effects of the earth, moon and sun, differentiate between rock types, compare chemical and physical changes, read graphs to support statements and use scientific tools with metric units. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery and above mastery, can track energy transformations, identify a substance with its properties, predict outcomes using a weather map, realize a solution to one problem creates another problem, state variables being tested within an experiment and draw conclusions using various charts and graphs. 

521 and Below 
522553 
554568 
569591 
592 and Above 

Students can identify parts of a system, use watts and volts in practical applications, state how new discoveries alter current scientific thinking, identify safe lab procedures, use watts and volts when referring to electricity and compare changes in the original state of an object. 
Students can relate historical discoveries to modern changes, verify experimental results, relate motion of an object to friction and gravity, determine when simple circuits are correctly constructed, identify renewable and nonrenewable resources, change the properties of an electromagnet, determine cause of vibration change, identify parts of a cell and determine appropriate scientific instruments. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can use weather data to describe patterns, compare erosion rates of materials, compare variation in size to evaporation rates, use rock layers to determine fossil age and identify the underlying sciences needed for careers. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery, can explain common energy conversions, identify parts and functions of various organisms, explain conservation of mass and identify common elements using the periodic table. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery and above mastery, can trace the sun's energy through various organisms, research causes of extinctions, use charts and graphs to explain data, recognize elements are composed of one type of matter, compare characteristics of organisms in different environments, relate landforms to weather and climate and apply skepticism to experimental results. 

543 and Below 
544565 
566586 
587608 
609 and Above 

Students can use safe procedures in the lab, recognize a system is composed of parts, compare plant and animal cells, see the cyclical processes in nature, realize that new discoveries modify current scientific thought, recognize characteristics of different organisms, utilize simple machines, describe simple heat transfer and use models to explain real world processes. 
Students can predict changes in populations, relate the effect of earthmoonsun positions, determine the relevance of important historical discoveries, make conclusions from observations and relate variation in size to processes. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can use variables in experiments, compare plant growth cycles, analyze ecological consequences of human interactions, compare continental drift to plate tectonics, separate mixtures into components, describe properties of matter, compare an object to its original state, relate wavelengths to the electromagnetic spectrum and explain motion due to force. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery, can use scientific tools, use the periodic table to identify common elements as liquids, gases or solids and metal or nonmetal, recognize why objects have color, classify processes as chemical or physical and identify cycles in nature. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery and above mastery, can use inferential reasoning to make logical conclusions from collected data displayed in graphs, recognize the phases of the moon, identify parallel and series circuits, use indicators to classify substances as acidic or basic and predict future motion of an object. 

558 and Below 
559577 
578598 
599623 
624 and Above 

Students can use safe procedures in the lab, interpret topographical maps, use scientific instruments, use vectors to represent force in simple machines, recognize parts of a system, use experiments to test explanations, differentiate between elements and compounds, determine the sun's effect on weather, relate limiting factors to population size, explain variation in scale and trace the life cycle of a star. 
Students can use methods and skepticism to investigate, recognize that new knowledge will modify current scientific thoughts, relate the contributions of scientists to development of science, describe particle movement during phase change, note the differences in types of solutions, write word equations, describe how sound is perceived, evaluate adaptations of organisms and identify cyclical processes. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can evaluate mass media reports of scientific developments, interpret how various medium changes waves, compare objects to original state, relate latitude to climate, compare the causes of tides, surfs and currents, use models to represent relative topics, compare the level of organization in living things, classify rocks and describe rock formations. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery, can use charts and graphs to analyze data, make logical conclusions from collected data, analyze the differences in flowering and nonflowering plants, explain conservation of matter and energy, calculate gravities’ effect on falling objects and predict population outcomes after changing one limiting factor. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery and above mastery, can use multiple data sources to analyze data, determine relative age of rock layers, describe acid base reactions, characterize circuits and currents, evaluate effects of chemicals on ecosystems, explain how skeletal, muscular and integumentary systems work together and analyze how the environment leads to natural selection of species. 

566 and Below 
567580 
581601 
602626 
627 and Above 

Students can follow safety rules in lab, explain Doppler effect, demonstrate use of scientific method, relate cell organelles structure to function, relate photosynthesis to living cells, support a hypothesis with data, identify energy sources, recognize simple atomic models and explain phenomena associated with motions in sunearthmoon. 
Students can generate simple solutions, draw conclusions from charts, select appropriate technology to communicate information, trace energy flow using a food pyramid, analyze how species behavior leads to continuity, identify geological events and relate global patterns of atmospheric movement to local weather. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can generate and defend solutions to issues, relate multiple disciplines of science to reach conclusion, compare variations in cell tissues and organs in respiration, circulatory and reproductive system and explain how they work together, classify elements as metallic, nonmetallic or metalloid, and relate energy conservation to transformation. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery, can apply skepticism to investigations, graph and interpret the relationship between distance, time, speed and acceleration, quantitatively describe Newton’s laws of motion, relate soil use to conservation practices, write word equations and identify reaction type, identify factors effecting chemical reaction rates and use valence electrons to classify elements. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery and above mastery, can design solutions to societal problems, calculate the mechanical advantage of simple machines, evaluate variations in diffusion rates and effect of changing temperature, use observable traits to classify organisms, demonstrate knowledge of basic genetic principles and conduct experiments to classify reaction type. 

584 and Below 
585595 
596619 
620647 
648 and Above 

Students can identify proper safety equipment and procedures, determine magnetic fields and follow appropriate steps in investigations. 
Students can relate heat to temperature change, investigate theories for the origin and configuration of the solar system, associate plate tectonics to mountain building and compare types of particles liberated in nuclear decay. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can draw conclusions from data, relate climate to latitude and altitude, qualitatively analyze the law of conservation of mass, characterize compound and distinguish the structures, predict properties of an element using the periodic table and relate key scientific innovations to real world problems. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery, can design experiments, write empirical formulas, use seismographic evidence to determine structure and composition of Earth, apply density, mass and volume to earth models, use a weather map to predict weather, verify the relationship between heat, temperature and kinetic energy, formulate explanations based on observations and use technology to solve problems. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery and above mastery, can determine variables affecting pendulums, construct solutions to problems, determine half lives, apply Newton’s laws, determine inverse square relationships, use power equations to solve problems, compare transverse and longitudinal waves, predict climatic conditions and calculate the mechanical advantage of simple machines. 

595 and Below 
596623 
624638 
639661 
662 and Above 
Grade 10 
Students can implement proper
safety procedures and practices, conduct investigations using scientific inquiry skills and evaluate the evidence for natural selection. 
Students can design investigations using scientific
inquiry skills, relate the structure of cellular organelles to their functions and interactions in eukaryotic cells, examine the cycle of viruses and disease prevention, synthesize concepts
across various science
disciplines, compare and contrast cell types, relate the structure and function of body systems to an organism and use DNA models to explain replication. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can
draw conclusions from data sources, formulate scientific explanations, apply scientific innovations, justify the classifications of viruses, use
DNA models to explain mutations,
predict and assess responses of organisms to stimuli, apply Mendel’s Laws to predict ratios, analyze interrelationships of organisms and interpret ecosystem energy changes. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery, can construct and
defend solutions to address problems, propose and evaluate models containing environmental variables, differentiate the structure and function of RNA in transcription and translation,
analyze movement across a cell membrane, correlate molecules to their function, differentiate mechanisms of homeostasis and relate cellular division processes to outcomes. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery and above mastery, can account for variability in experimental results, quantitatively analyze cellular energy flow, compare classification systems and
analyze data to predict the effect of limiting factors on populations. 

622 and Below 
623651 
652670 
671697 
698 and Above 
Grade 11 
Students can implement safe
procedures and practices, relate current issues to scientific innovations, evaluate
contributions to the atomic theory, formulate scientific explanations and classify by chemical and physical properties. 
Students can generate correct formula or name for a compound,
construct and defend potential solutions to current issues, illustrate Lewis’ dot structures for representative elements, compare methods of measuring pH and predict the product of an
acidbase reaction. 
Students, in addition to skills below mastery, can design
solutions to problems, synthesize concepts across science disciplines, produce electron configurations and orbital diagrams, predict chemical properties of elements, identify
oxidation numbers, create balanced equations, determine temperature and concentration effects on solutions, explain dynamic equilibrium, generate mole conversions, and use the gas laws. 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery, can conduct and design
investigations incorporating scientific inquiry, evaluate the atomic theory, predict bonding between atoms and characterize the properties, explain water’s role as a solvent using polarity,
and use significant figures in mole calculation to solve chemistry problems involving formulas, reactions and experimental data 
Students, in addition to skills at mastery and above mastery, can draw conclusions from a variety of data sources, describe atoms using the Quantum Model,
analyze periodic trends, construct models to explain the structure of
molecules, classify reactions as exothermic and endothermic, and compare and contrast the Arrhenius and BronstedLowry definitions of acids and bases. 

628 and Below 
629662 
663683 
684705 
706 and Above 
Social Studies

Novice 
Partial Mastery 
Mastery 
Above Mastery 
Distinguished 

Students can identify examples of fairness and the benefits of teamwork/groups in accomplishing goals; identify common beliefs and relationships between people and the environment; identify appropriate resources for research; illustrate a path of production; explain the importance of respect for diversity; and use basic map skills. 
Students know the significance of patriotic holidays; recognize the importance of the common good; understand the importance of rules; identify geographic features; identify factors of supply/demand; compare/contrast occupations; and draw conclusions from charts, maps, graphs, and pictures. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below Mastery, can recognize the importance of government and identify responsibilities at each level; defend respect for minority rights; identify an example of majority rule; and analyze and compare historical sources to infer how they contribute to our understanding of the past. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery, can evaluate government responsibilities; analyze a budget and draw conclusions; analyze relationships between taxation and public services; relate environmental conditions to occupations; analyze pictures that reflect historic change; and locate states on a map. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery and Above Mastery, can infer how commonly held principles/beliefs unite citizens and draw conclusions about the influence of environmental/ geographic conditions on peoples’ lives. 

376 and Below 
377406 
407426 
427448 
449 and Above 

Students can recognize examples of responsible citizenship; identify how rules/laws protect citizens; recognize the influences of advertising; recognize Native American lifestyles; and identify geographic features. 
Students can identify the benefits of community agencies; recognize democratic principles/individual rights; identify roles of consumers/producers; relate geographic factors to economic conditions; compare Native Americans and colonists; and analyze graphics/artifacts to explain and draw conclusions about events related to colonization/ Revolution/territorial expansion. 
Students, in addition to the skills below Mastery, can defend citizen action; analyze contributions of diverse colonial groups; explain advertising techniques; relate taxation to public services; compare data in graphic displays; analyze factors in settlement/culture; analyze primary sources to explain the effect of individuals/groups/events in the colonial era; and analyze George Washington’s farewell address. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery, can analyze events/expressions related to the development of American democracy; evaluate the privileges of citizenship; explain principles expressed in the Declaration of Independence; analyze causeeffect in economic situations; analyze contacts between Native Americans and settlers; and compare the influences/motivations/skills of different colonial groups. 
Students, in addition to skills at Mastery and Above Mastery, can locate western hemisphere countries; analyze effects of change caused by geographic conditions and human intervention; explain economic effects of the American revolution; analyze environmental influences on Native Americans; and chronologically organize/analyze motivations and events through the colonial/ Revolutionary periods. 

388 and Below 
389413 
414428 
429452 
453 and Above 

Students can use illustrations to identify regional characteristics; match citizen actions to individual rights; select evidence that supports the ability of government to provide for its citizens; select the meaning of a quotation; and draw conclusions about key participants in American social movements. 
Students can identify Constitutional powers; relate U.S. regions/geography to socioeconomic conditions; draw conclusions about information in special purpose maps; identify issues faced by the first president; and identify a consequence of immigration. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below Mastery, can analyze how groups promote common good; explain consequences of innovations in transportation; identify causes of the Civil War; identify an effect of industrialization; judge whether the government provides for citizen needs; and use primary sources to analyze the effects of immigration on economic/social development. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery, can evaluate the actions government/nongovernment groups; explain relationships between expense/profit and supply/demand; assess the effects of economic factors in US regions; and use primary sources/data to analyze historical events/attitudes/motivations. 
Students, in addition to skills at Mastery and Above Mastery, can evaluate democratic principles; analyze founding documents; differentiate rights/privileges; justify citizen actions and explain jury process; analyze the economic impact of transportation/ industrialization/agricultural demand; summarize contributions to the US becoming a world power; and justify manmade environmental changes. 

386 and Below 
387414 
415427 
428451 
452 and Above 

Students can identify how nations interact; compare the production/consumption of goods in different countries; use map tools to interpret information; draw conclusions about how the environment affects people; identify causes/effects of Protestant Reformation; and explain benefits of peaceful conflict resolution. 
Students can compare limited/unlimited governments; compare the roles/rights of American citizens with citizens in other countries; relate economic factors to demand/trade; and interpret a population growth chart. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below Mastery, can analyze the actions of different forms of government; analyze purposes of political parties; assess pros/cons of nuclear power; identify an effect of industrialization; draw conclusions about the effects of major waterways; identify causes of major world conflicts; and explain immigration patterns. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery, can evaluate contributions of past civilizations; analyze the impact of strong leadership; evaluate competing ideas about the purpose of government; compare/contrast international organizations; describe changes in transportation systems; explain political divisions of nations; and compare monotheistic religions. 
Students, in addition to skills at Mastery and Above Mastery, can infer economic reasons for migration; explain global marketing principles; compare communism/socialism/capitalism; analyze motivations for European expansion; explain global effects of the Industrial Revolution/Great Depression; and analyze the impact of transportation systems. 

389 and Below 
390416 
417431 
432451 
452 and Above 

Students can compare different forms of government and their laws; compare social services in different countries; explain supply/demand; use geographic terminology to explain/identify features of the earth; use geography to explain cultural movement; select an effect of a regional interconnection; and use population pyramids to compare world regions. 
Students can compare citizen rights and lawmaking processes in different political systems; compare ways to influence public policy; analyze ways nations protect justice; draw conclusions from special purpose maps; compare map projections; explain connections between geography/movement/culture; analyze the economic impact of a natural event; and describe the role of geopolitics in historic events. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below Mastery, can analyze differences between power and authority; analyze the influences of human geographic factors on the economy; describe the impact of technology around the world; compare economic systems; evaluate human impact on the environment; and compare/contrast cultural beliefs. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery, can evaluate interactions between nations; analyze ways nations maintain order/protect justice; apply economic terminology/concepts to global market conditions/economic development; and analyze development of early civilizations/ world celebrations. 
Students, in addition to skills at Mastery and Above Mastery, can justify limited government; analyze the effects of geographic conditions; draw conclusions from graphics; and analyze sources to reconstruct/interpret the past. 

384 and Below 
385411 
412427 
428452 
453 and Above 

Students can explain court jurisdictions; identify citizen actions that strengthen the common good; identify WV’s relative location and major occupations; conclude how WV’s environment affects tourism; and identify characteristics of Native American cultures. 
Students can compare government policies with actions; analyze the actions of lawmakers; explain the development of transportation systems; explain the history of major WV festivals; identify exact location/places of historical interest; evaluate conflicts between Native Americans and colonists; interpret primary sources; and analyze conditions favorable to constitutional government. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below Mastery, can analyze mental maps created by primary sources; explain the effects of immigration on WV’s culture; explain urban development; draw conclusions about WV industries; identify WV’s geographic regions; explain types of elections; assess tensions in the statehood movement; and analyze effects of technological change. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery, can analyze the division of government powers; assess the effects of year round tourist attractions; evaluate factors that impact economic growth; analyze WV’s the labor movement; evaluate the benefits of civic discussion/citizen action; identify sources of state revenue; and identify responsibilities of elected officials. 
Students, in addition to skills at Mastery and Above Mastery, can analyze strategies that strengthen the common good; correlate responsibilities and voting rights; analyze the correlation between geographic/economic/social conditions; and analyze the effects of government action. 

391 and Below 
392417 
418432 
433453 
454 and Above 

Students can identify features of ancient trade patterns; relate art to its cultural influences; explain the effects of world political developments/geographic features; compare the acceptance of diversity in ancient societies; and interpret information from primary documents. 
Students can analyze civic involvement; draw conclusions about the interaction of early humans with the environment; compare the rise of ancient civilizations and identify their geographic characteristics; explain the beliefs of ancient philosophies; relate individual worth to Renaissance Man; evaluate the effects of Enlightenment thinking; and identify labor changes caused by industrialization. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery can draw conclusions about the impact of industrialization on society; evaluate the impact of political philosophers and diverse ideas about the purpose of government; evaluate the influence of religion on medieval society; analyze American influences on other nations; and compare the effects of the American and French Revolutions. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery, can evaluate impacts of world resources/trade/climate; evaluate the role of individuals/groups in nationbuilding; explain the breakdown of government order; assess social roles in ancient civilizations; and analyze the development of world language patterns. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery and Above Mastery, can analyze the causes of conflict and propose resolutions; compare/contrast forms of constitutional governments/monarchies; and draw conclusions about the impact of Arabic/Islamic society. 

386 and Below 
387414 
415431 
432453 
454 and Above 

Students can identify relationships between supply/demand; compare effects of population change; describe fundamental democratic principles; compare documents basic to representative democracy; identify relative locations; interpret emotion in written documents; identify effects of technological change; and compare life prior to the 17th century to life today. 
Students can explain foreign/domestic political movements; determine appropriate uses of maps; compare/contrast social conditions; analyze effects of the environment on settlement patterns; analyze causes/effects of Civil War; explain relationships between labor and industrialization; explain a British colonial viewpoint; identify conflicting democratic principles; and explain effects of nationalism. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery, can analyze reform movements/influences of citizen action; describe Constitutional compromises/ impact of democratic values; justify the amendment process; analyze impact of government policies/cultural diffusion/population growth; relate empire building to American Revolution; analyze foreign trade policies; and explain impact of Supreme Court decisions. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery, can evaluate the influence of American democracy on other nations; relate taxes to historical controversies; analyze motives for colonization; analyze connections between events/social movements; explain the development of US democracy; assess significance of George Washington’s Farewell Address; and relate the Constitution to political conditions. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery and Above Mastery, can evaluate the effects of the Hamilton/Jefferson debate and analyze the effect of slavery on the political/economic/social development of the US; and evaluate conflicts/discrepancies related to democratic principles. 

382 and Below 
383410 
411427 
428448 
449 and Above 

Students can explain the use of civil disobedience; analyze opinions on the growth of the federal government; explain how cultural elements can facilitate global understanding; and compare/contrast Fascism, Nazism, and Communism. 
Students can analyze the effects of technology, stereotyping, and economic/social changes; interpret political communication; analyze the significance of geography on events and economic changes; determine the impact of third parties; compare/contrast issues related to universal human rights; explain US foreign policy since World War II; and explain the purpose of international organizations. 
Students, in addition to the skills described below mastery can analyze conflicts/challenges in the 20th/21st centuries; explain developments in the world labor movement; compare/contrast effects of independence movements; analyze civil rights/reform movements; compare economies of developed/developing countries; explain differences in economic policies; and assess the impact of environmental change. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery, can analyze causes/effects of economic policies; evaluate the impact of New Deal policies; analyze responses of world leaders; assess the influence of citizen action on public policy; analyze the environmental effects of human actions; and explain the role of political parties. 
Students, in addition to the skills at Mastery and Above Mastery, can analyze changes in federalism/civic responsibility/American society; assess the impact of US foreign policies since WW II; and compare/contrast conflict resolution within constitutional and totalitarian systems of government. 

396 and Below 
397421 
422434 
435454 
455 and Above 
